by N.S. Parameswaran
According to Hinduism, whether it is Advaitha, Visishtadvaitha or Dwaitha, there is only One Supreme God called “Brahman” or Paramathma or Purushan. Brahman is a Sanskrit word, the closest English meaning of which is “Universal Consciousness”. According to Vedas, Brahman or God is present in Everything and Everything is God, which is called “Pantheism”.
Even though Brahman is beyond description (nirguna or without any attributes), the Rishis of Sanadhana Dharma , based on their personal experience have declared that it can be best described as Sat – Chit – Ananda
Sat:- means” Existance” (Pure and Absolute)
Chit :- means“Knowledge” (Pure and Absolute)
Ananda :-means”Bliss” (Pure and Absolute)
This world has it’s own subjective reality, but upon dawning of the knowledge of Brahman, this relative reality subsides and only the absolute reality of Brahman remains.
“Moksha” is the ultimate goal of Human existence, rewarded in turn by supreme “Peace and Bliss”. It is a state of statelessness on the wheel of action, where one stands liberated from all desires and fears of action and consequences. Hindu believes that the jeevathma merges with the Paramathma through God realization. If the Jeevathma is not merging with the Paramathma after death, due to the papakarmas commited in this Janma (birth), it again entangles in the cycle of birth and death.
Hinduism specifies many Yogas or Techniques to attain the ultimate Truth or knowledge of Brahman, depending upon the individual temperament of different people.
1. Jnana Yoga :- The path of wisdom and knowledge. Uses his power of discrimination to cut the veil of ignorance and attain the Truth. Jnana yoga appeals to the philosophical and Intellectuals.
2. Bhakthi Yoga :- Path of love and devotion.” Prem” is conditionless devine love. Bhakthi yoga appeals to the emotional people
3. Raja Yoga :- Path of self- control and self- mastering . He controls his mind, until it perfectly becomes still, when there is no wall between himself and his own devine nature. The main practice in Raja Yoga is “Meditation”.
4. Karma Yoga :- The path of selfless service. The key is to practice selfless actions without any selfish expectations.
Our life in this world has got two dharmas. One is ” Vyavaharika Dharma” – connected with the Physical Body, it’s existence, day to day needs, etc . The other one is “Adhyatmika Dharma “ or dharma of the Mind. All our Spiritual advancement towards Moksha is connected with the Adhyathmika Dharma for which we have to lead a pure, compassionate and selfless life.